Pistachio

We are specialists in the cultivation of pistachio. We dedicate all our efforts in the production and multiplication of pistachio plant.

From Viveros Ruz Vallecillos, we look for and insist on the production of an ecological and quality product at an affordable price for the farmer.

We put at the service of the farmer, our technical team that will advise you in a particular and continuous way on any aspect of the crop.

 

What should I keep in mind before planting?

Before implanting the pistachio crop you have to raise the following points:

The male and female varieties: there is a wide range of traditional pistachio varieties to choose from. In addition there are also new varieties developed in recent years with a lot of potential. For correct pollination one male has to be planted for every 8 females.

The variety of the pattern: in general the pistachio trees are trees that, like most fruit trees, are planted grafted. In this way the standard variety is selected according to the soil while the grafted variety is only selected with production criteria.

The plantation frame: the most usual plantation frame is 6 – 7 meters between rows and 5 meters between trees, although this has to be adapted according to the conditions.

Presentation of the plant: the fruit trees can be planted in root ball or bare root. Depending on the time of year in which you want to plant the election will vary. The root ball can be planted any time of the year while the bare root trees can only be planted during the winter.

Grafting: both plants can be purchased already grafted in nursery and perform grafting in the field. The first option is more comfortable but also more expensive. The second one requires first planting the pattern and later going on to graft all the trees.

Once you have all the above decided you have to prepare the ground for the plantation. The best thing is to perform deep crossed work, with a subsoiler or plow of shovels. Then a pass is made with a cultivator to leave the fine soil. It is important that just after planting the trees they tutoren and protect themselves with a mesh. In this way, correct growth is ensured. In addition, for a good adaptation you have to perform an implementation risk.

 

Keys to the cultivation of pistachio:

Pruning

According to the age of the pistachios, the type of pruning to be carried out varies:

Training pruning: it is the one that takes place the first 5 – 8 years in which the crop is not fully productive. The objective is to get the tree to acquire the desired shape. The ideal shape is in a glass with three main branches and a cross height of no more than one meter. With this form, better yields are obtained and collection is easier.

Production pruning: this is the pruning that is carried out every productive year in winter. The objective of this pruning is to achieve aeration and luminosity inside the glass. In this way it is possible to maintain production, the main objective of the plantation.

Soil management

The cultivation of pistachio can be done under different soil management. In the traditional dryers the soil is tilled. In general, one or two deep passes are made with plow of moldboard or subsoiler to sponge the soil and facilitate the entry of water. In addition, during the summer several passes of cultivator are made to control the weeds.

However, it is also possible to grow pistachios with vegetable cover either on the street or on the whole surface. Frequent mowing is basic in this type of handling. They allow to have a uniform cover and avoid excessive growths. A total herbicide is the best option to avoid the presence of weeds around trees.

Irrigation

The hydric needs of the pistachero, oscillate between 300 and 600 mm according to the variety. In general, in arid areas these needs are covered with irrigation allocations of between 4,000 and 6,500 m3 / ha.

Localized irrigation is perfect for pistachio cultivation. With this type of irrigation the stagnations are avoided. It reacts better to infrequent watering infrequent than to small waterings very frequently.

To get a lot of production and quality it is interesting to divide the irrigation in three phases:

Phase I – From flowering to the maximum size of the fruit: in this phase you have to cover all of your water needs.

Phase II – Hardening of the shell: to achieve a good hardening it is important to establish restrictions on irrigation. The optimum is to provide only half of the needs.

Phase III – Maturation of the fruit until harvesting: In this phase, as in the first phase, 100% of the crop’s water needs have to be covered.

Fertilization

To achieve a healthy crop and a good yield it is very important to take care of the fertilization. Doing a leaf analysis in spring is the best way to plan fertilization for each campaign. That way you can know what deficits our culture presents. In the following table there are the optimal leaf nutrient values:

In irrigation the most usual is to apply fertilizers by fertigation. In this way, fertilization can be controlled as much as possible, adapting it to the needs of the crop at all times. In dry deserts it is common to use foliar fertilizers since there is no need for moisture in the soil. Granules can also be used at times when there is sufficient moisture.

Collection and processing

Between the end of August and the beginning of September, depending on the area, it is time to collect the pistachio. The collection is done with a vibrator with an umbrella, as in the olive tree.
Once this is collected it has to be processed as it is sold peeled and dried.

Why does pistachio cultivation have such a future in Spain?

As we have seen, pistachio is a very interesting crop. It adapts very well to the conditions of a large part of Spain. Currently, our country is an importer of pistachios, which is why the large nut trading companies are very interested in promoting this crop. These ensure the purchase of the entire harvest at market prices.

Also with the new irrigation you can get very good productions. On average, under irrigation, the yield of this crop is 2,000 kg / ha from the eighth year until the end of its productive life. The average price of the last 10 years is € 4.6 / kg. Therefore the income in irrigated land can be € 9,200 / ha and year. In dry land, the yield is a little lower, between 1,000 and 1,500 kg / ha but the crop is equally viable economically since the costs are also reduced.

In summary, pistachio cultivation is booming and the future is assured for years to come. If you want to plant pistachio, this is the right time!